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Linux Directory Structure

Linux Directory Structure explained

To understand Linux, you must know about it’s File System Structure. So, this article is aimed to provide information about Linux directory structure.

Linux Directory Structure

Linux Directory Structure

  1. /bin : Contains all binary executable programs required for booting and repairing of the system. It also contains commands required to run into single-user-mode and other basic commands like ps, ls, ping, grep, cp, less.
  2. /boot : Boot loader files including Linux Kernel and grub files.
  3. /dev : Contains all device files required for the hardware devices like cdrom, cpu, etc
  4. /etc : Contains Application’s configuration files, startup, shutdown, start and stop script for every individual program.
  5. /home : User home directory. So, every time a new user is created, a directory in the name of user is created within “/home”.
  6. /lib : Contains kernel modules and shared library images required to boot the system and run commands in root file system.
  7. /media : Mount point for removable medias. So, each time a removable media like cdrom is connected to the system it is atuomatically mounted to a temporary mount directory created under /media.
  8. /mnt : Temporary mount directory for mounting file systems.
  9. /opt : Third party application software’s for example Java
  10. /sbin : Binary executable programs required by System Administrator for Maintenance. Example iptables, fdisk, ifconfig, reboot etc.
  11. /srv : contains server specific and service related files for protocols like FTP, rsync, www etc
  12. /tmp : System’s Temporary Directory. It is accessible by both normal users and root hence stores temporary files for user and system.
  13. /usr : contains files like executable binaries, documentation, source code, libraries for second level program.
  14. /var : This stores all the files that vary as the system runs like logs, lock, spool, mail etc
  15. /root : Home directory of root user.
  16. /proc : Virtual file system. It doesn’t contain ‘real’ files but runtime system information (e.g. system memory, devices mounted, hardware configuration, etc)
  17. /lost+found : It is created during Linux installation and is useful for recovering files which may be broken due to unexpected shutdown.
Linux Directory Structure explained
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